Rijksmuseum - https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en The most famous museum in the Netherlands
Flower market- http://www.amsterdamlogue.com/amsterdam-flower-market-and-what-to-expect.html One of the many stalls at the flower market...
The Katsu coffee shop. http://www.katsu.nl They sell a large selection of regular & herbal teas, fruit juices, soft drinks and a perfect italian coffee, espresso, cappuccino or latte as well as yes you guessed it, Marijuana.
Two hotels to consider are Hotel Tropen and Manor Hotel. The Manor hotel is nice, I stayed there last time. http://www.hampshire-hotels.com/hampshire-hotel-the-manor-amsterdam Hotel Tropen- http://www.nh-hotels.com/hotel/nh-amsterdam-tropen?nhagentid=10755&nhsubagentid=107555220035
Both hotels are near the tram stop called Muiderpoort train station. http://www.amsterdamtips.com/tips/train-stations-amsterdam.php
You can go directly to the airport without going to the central station. Cost is 4 euros. There are a couple of museums and a small park in the area. One is the Tropen museum ( Tropical museum) which is very interesting. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropenmuseum
HELPFUL TIP There is also a 1, 2 or 3 day transport pass available if you plan to really see the city in depth. http://www.amsterdam.info/pass/